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Password types[ edit ] All tokens contain some secret information that is used to prove identity.
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There are four different ways in which this information can be used: Asynchronous password token for online banking. Static password token The device contains a password which is physically hidden not visible to the possessorbut which is transmitted for each authentication. This type is vulnerable to replay attacks. Synchronous dynamic password token A timer is used to rotate through various combinations produced by a cryptographic algorithm.
The token and the authentication server must have synchronized clocks. Asynchronous password token A one-time password is generated without the use of a clock, either from a one-time pad or cryptographic algorithm.
Challenge response token Using public key jetoane criptograficeit is possible jetoane criptografice prove possession of a private key without revealing that key.
The authentication server encrypts a challenge typically a random jetoane criptografice, or at least data with some random parts with a public key; the device proves it possesses a copy of the matching private key by providing the decrypted challenge. Main article: One-time password Time-synchronized one-time passwords change constantly at a set time interval; e.
To do this some sort of synchronization must jetoane criptografice between the client 's token and the authentication server. For disconnected tokens this time-synchronization is done before the token is distributed to the client.
Other token types do the synchronization when the token is inserted into an input device. The main problem with time-synchronized tokens is that they can, over time, become unsynchronized.
Most also cannot have replaceable batteries and only last up to 5 years before having to be jetoane criptografice — so there is additional cost. Each password is unguessable, even when previous passwords are known.
The open source OAuth algorithm is standardized; other algorithms are covered by US patents. Each password is observably unpredictable and independent of previous ones, whereby an adversary would be unable to guess what the next password may be, even with knowledge of all previous passwords. Physical types[ edit ] Tokens can contain chips with functions varying from very simple to very complex, including multiple authentication methods.
The simplest security tokens do not need any connection to a computer. The tokens have a physical display; the authenticating user simply enters the displayed number to log in. Other tokens connect to the computer using wireless techniques, such as Bluetooth. These tokens transfer a key sequence to the local client or to a nearby access point.
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Alternatively, another form of token that has been widely available for many years is a mobile device which communicates using an out-of-band channel like voice, SMSor USSD. Still other tokens plug into the computer, and may require a PIN. Depending on the type of the token, the computer OS will then either read the key from the token and perform a cryptographic operation on it, or ask the token's firmware to perform this operation.
A related application is the hardware dongle required by some computer programs to prove ownership of the software. Commercial solutions are provided by a variety of vendors, each with their own proprietary and often patented implementation of variously used security features. Token designs meeting certain security standards are certified in the United States as compliant with FIPSa federal security standard. Tokens jetoane criptografice any kind of certification are sometimes viewed as suspect, as they often do not meet accepted government or industry security standards, have not been put through rigorous testing, and likely cannot provide the same level of cryptographic security as token solutions which have had their designs independently audited by third-party agencies.
Disconnected tokens have neither a physical nor logical connection to the client computer. They typically do not require a special input device, and instead use a built-in screen to display the generated authentication data, which the user enters manually themselves via a keyboard or keypad. Disconnected tokens are the most common type of security token used usually in combination with a password in two-factor authentication for online identification.
Tokens in this category automatically transmit the authentication information to jetoane criptografice client computer once a physical connection is made, eliminating the need for the user to manually enter the authentication information. However, in order to use a connected token, the appropriate input device must be installed. The most common types of physical tokens are smart cards and USB tokens, which require a smart card reader and a USB port respectively.
Increasingly, Universal 2nd Factor U2F tokens, supported by the open specification group FIDO Alliance have become popular for jetoane criptografice with jetoane criptografice browser support beginning in and supported by popular jetoane criptografice and social media sites. Older PC card tokens are made to work primarily with laptops. The audio jack port is a relatively practical method to establish connection between mobile devices, such as iPhone, iPad and Android, and other accessories.
The most well known device is called Squarea credit card reader for iPhone and Android. Some use a special purpose interface e.
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Tokens can also be used as a photo ID card. Cell phones and PDAs can also serve as security tokens with proper programming. Main article: Smart card Many connected tokens use smart card technology. Jetoane criptografice cards can be very cheap around ten cents [ citation needed ] and contain proven security mechanisms as used by financial institutions, like cash cards. However, computational performance of smart cards jetoane criptografice often rather limited because of extreme low power consumption and ultra-thin form-factor requirements.
Smart-card-based USB tokens which contain a smart card chip inside provide the functionality of both USB tokens and smart cards. They enable a broad range of security solutions and provide the abilities and jetoane criptografice of a traditional smart card without requiring a unique input device. From the computer operating system 's point of view such a token is a USB-connected smart card reader with one non-removable smart card present.
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The absence of the need for physical contact makes them more convenient than both connected and disconnected tokens. As a result, contactless tokens are a popular choice for keyless entry systems and electronic payment solutions such as Mobil Speedpasswhich uses RFID to transmit authentication info from a keychain token.
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Bluetooth tokens[ edit ] This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions.
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September The Bluetooth Low Energy protocols serve for long lasting battery lifecycle of wireless transmission. The transmission of inherent Bluetooth identity data is the lowest quality for supporting authentication. A bidirectional connection for transactional data interchange serves for the most sophisticated authentication procedures.
However the automatic transmission power control antagonizes to attempts for radial distance estimates. The escape is available apart from the standardised Bluetooth power control algorithm to provide a calibration on minimally required transmission power.
Bluetooth authentication works when closer than 32 feet 10 meters. When the Bluetooth link is not properly operable, the token may be inserted into a USB input device to function. Another combination is with smart card to store locally larger amounts of identity data and process information as well.
The advantage with the Bluetooth mode of operation is the option of combining sign-off atașament de opțiuni binare distance metrics. Respective products are in jetoane criptografice, following the concepts of electronic leash. NFC tokens[ edit ] Near-field communication NFC tokens combined with a Bluetooth token may operate in several modes, thus working in both a connected and a disconnected state. NFC authentication works when closer than 1 foot 0.
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The NFC protocol bridges short distances to the reader while the Bluetooth connection serves for data provision with the token to enable authentication. Also when the Bluetooth link is not connected, the token may serve the locally stored authentication information in coarse positioning to the NFC reader and relieves from exact positioning to a connector.
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As the passwords are stored on the token, users need not remember their passwords and therefore can select more secure passwords, or have more secure passwords assigned. Usually most tokens store a cryptographic hash of the password so that if the token is compromised, the password is still protected.
They can be used as mobile app replacement, as well as in parallel as a backup.